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The invention and improvement of thermometer
Oct 31, 2017

The first thermometer was invented by the Italian scientist, Galileo 1564~1642, in 1593. His first thermometer was an open glass tube with a large walnut glass bulb on the other end. The glass bulb is heated before use and then the glass tube is inserted into the water. As the temperature changes, the water in the glass tube will move up and down, according to the number of moving to determine the temperature change and temperature. Thermometer has the effect of cold and cold expansion, so this kind of thermometer, by external atmospheric pressure and other environmental factors, so the measurement error is larger.

Later, Galileo's students and other scientists, on this basis, repeated improvements, such as the glass tube upside down, the liquid in the tube, the glass tube closed and so on. The more prominent is the French Bulio in 1659 made the thermometer, he reduced the volume of glass bubbles, and the temperature of the material changed to Mercury, with the prototype of the thermometer. After the Dutch Fahrenheit used alcohol in 1709, Mercury was used as a measuring substance in 1714, creating a more precise thermometer. He observed the boiling temperature of the water, the temperature of the mixture of water and ice, the temperature of the mixture of brine and ice; After repeated experiment and approval, finally the temperature of a certain concentration of brine solidification is 0℉, the temperature of pure water is fixed as 32℉, the temperature of the standard atmospheric pressure boiling water is set to 212℉, and ℉ represents the Fahrenheit temperature, This is Fahrenheit thermometer.

While the Fahrenheit thermometer appeared, the Frenchman Liemiul (1683~1757) also designed and manufactured a thermometer.

He thinks that the expansion coefficient of mercury is too small to be a temperature-measuring material. He concentrated on the advantages of using alcohol as a matter of temperature. He has repeatedly found that alcohol, which contains 1/5 of water, increases in volume from 1000 units to 1080 units, between the freezing temperature of water and the boiling temperature. So he divides the freezing point and boiling points into 80 parts, which is set to the temperature of his thermometer, which is lesivindur.

The Fahrenheit thermometer was made after more than 30 years, in 1742, the Swedish Theseus improved the Fahrenheit thermometer of the Schlommer to the two temperature points of the value of the reverse (that is, the boiling point 100 degrees, freezing point 0 degrees), it became the temperature of the hundred points, that is, Celsius temperature, expressed in ℃. The relationship between Fahrenheit temperature and Celsius temperature is ℉=9/5℃+32, or ℃=5/9 (℉-32).

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